Jornal de Patologia e Biologia de Doenças


Extra pulmonary manifestations in covid-19: A review on histopathological alterations.

Nilanjana Bhattacharyya Nath*, Anjali Smita, Abhijit Dutt

COVID-19 is a major health issue, responsible for more than three million deaths worldwide as of June 2021. COVID-19 is most well-known for causing acute respiratory pathology, but it can also result in several extra pulmonary manifestations. In serious condition, SARS-CoV-2 causes a systemic disease, with possible cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, thrombotic, neurological, renal, dermatologic, reproductive, and psychologic manifestations. Histopathological alterations are mostly found within lungs and blood vessels. Recent investigations through full autopsy or minimally invasive autopsy of COVID-19 patients revealed that SARS-CoV-2 hijacked angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) for entry into target cells to cause severe pathologic changes in the lungs and multiple extra pulmonary organs/tissues. To understand its morbidity, mortality and the pathogenesis, histopathological findings are essential. The histopathological features of COVID-19 significantly help therapists to improve disease treatment and outcome. So, more studies and evidence on tissue samples are required to establish the degree of involvement of other organs and tissues which are indeed affected by COVID-19. In this article, we have tried to provide comprehensive information regarding the multisystemic involvement of COVID-19 based on the evidence and experiences from the researchers worldwide.